Douglas B. Cameron


C++ and Genetic Programming Projects

Publicly Available Programs

Resumè - Vitae

Online Scientific work

Books on my Bookshelf

Just Interesting

Harbor Links (old)


"We act as though comfort and luxury were the chief requirements of life, when all we need to make us happy is something to be enthusiastic about."        

Albert Einstein

C++ and Genetic Programming

Genetic Programming -

The evolution of intelligent programming...
Nature's statistical searching applied to large databases.

Pisum - running 'natural' program

Scientific Software Development and Consulting
C++ Template Library


The computer program is one of humanity's highest forms of imagination (to some, art), a confluence of logic and symmetry that, at its best, can make a lifelong impression, convey our deepest thoughts, make us laugh, or rally an economy. It transcends the programmer and attains a life of its own.

paraphrase of Bill Machrone,
  PC Magazine Sept 1, 1998 by Bruce Price

C60 - Soccer ball shaped fullerene moleculePublicly Available Programs

Doug at Rowland 1998.jpg (93705 bytes)Online Publications

  1. Electron Diffraction of Trapped Cluster Ions
    This paper documents the development of the first device capable of performing electron diffraction on charged molecules that are trapped in an oscillating electric field. Molecular structure can be probed by diffraction while mass can be selected by the trapping electric fields.

    This technique has been used to study the structure of salt clusters (external link).

     vacuum source chamber covered in Al foil for baking

  2. Charge-exchange collisions of C60z+ : a probe of the ion charge distribution
    A study of gas phase ion-molecule reactions at thermal collision energies performed in a Paul trap. Experiments focusing on C60 suggest it distributes charge non-uniformly.
  3. Charge-Exchange and Cluster Formation in an rf Paul Trap: Interaction of Alkali Atoms with C60+
    Observations of the formation of LinC60+ within a Paul trap. With this technology, reaction cross sections and the growth of other alkali metal clusters can be observed in the gas phase and at controlled temperatures.

      C60 in toluene

  4. Photofragmentation of Ag4(N2)x, x=0-3: N2 binding energies
         vacuum chamber for creating and detecting Ag clusters      source chamber
  5. Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Metal Clusters: a Status Report
  6. Electronic and Geometric Structure in Silver Clusters
         Experiment for creating silver clusters      dougla-R2-E024.jpg (289577 bytes)
  7. Ocustom electronicsptical Absorption Spectroscopy of Sodium Clusters as Measured by Collinear Molecular Beam Photodepletion
         experiment.jpg (15504 bytes)     BlueReflect.jpg (8072 bytes)


Diffraction from trapped materialOnline Presentations

  1. Electron Diffraction of Trapped Cluster Ions
  2. Paul Traps, Fullerenes, and Electron Diffraction
    "The first experiment to perform electron diffraction on trapped molecules"
    (Talk slides with program links)
  3. C60z+ Reactions with Alkali Metals in an rf Trap

Doug in labThesis: Experimental and Theoretical work on metallic particles

Silver Clusters:
Spectroscopic Probes and Theoretical Models of Gas Phase Structure

Detailed observations of the quantum mechanical behavior of small metal particles, including explainations of the computational modeling of that behavior using models of distorted spheres.

Talks and Presentations:

"What I see in Nature is a magnificent structure that we can comprehend only very imperfectly, and that must fill a thinking person with a feeling of humility. This is a genuinely religious feeling that has nothing to do with mysticism."

Albert Einstein

Just Interesting

"The World As I See It" by Albert Einstein

"How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; for what purpose he knows not, though he sometimes thinks he senses it...."

Albert Einstein

"There is no subject, however complex, which, if studied with patience and intelligence will not become more complex."

D. Gordon Rohman

Extra-biblical Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal Literature

On Mutation:

See you now, your bait of falsehood takes this carp of truth:
And thus do we of wisdom and of reach,
With windlasses and with assays of bias,
By indirections find directions out."

Hamlet, II, i

"Men have become the tools of their tools..."

Video Addict

"What makes planets go around the sun? At the time of Kepler some people answered this problem by saying that there were angels behind them beating their wings and pushing the planets around in orbit. As you will see, the answer is not very far from the truth. The only difference is that the angels sit in a different direction and their wings push inwards."

R.P. Feynman
The Character of Physical Law (1965)

Science is a technique to keep yourself from kidding yourself.

Edwin H. Land

In the long run, evolvability is more important than fitness.
And our genes are set not only to survive, but to evolve.


Entropy is a state of knowledge, not a state of matter, as such it belongs squarely to information theory not to thermodynamics. Contrary to many teachings on the second law of thermodynamics and popular statements referring to the 'entropy of the universe', entropy is an expression of logic when knowledge is incomplete. It is equivalently a statement about 'reproducibility', but it is not a physical theory. The universe does not 'tend to disorder', but our ability to predict its future tends to become less precise the longer our prediction.

This common misconception, a confusion of randomness with incomplete information, has been around since the time of Ludwig Boltzman. As early as 1875, Gibbs tried to correct the confusion, and Planck complained the misconception was 'impossible to eradicate'. Unfortunately, the true meaning of entropy has only been assimilated as slowly as Darwin's theory of evolution.

See for example 'A Backward Look to the Future', E. T. Jaynes
or the more technical 'The Second Law as Physical Fact and as Human Inference', E. T. Jaynes. [All from the E. T. Jaynes bibliography.]
Claude E. Shannon's, 'A Mathematical Theory of Communication' indirectly touches on this topic.


S = k log( W )                          Boltzman's epitaph

Copyright 1999-2002 Douglas B. Cameron.
Last revised: February 20, 2003.

Comments and suggestions are encouraged: